Several constraints can affect paragliding practice.
It goes without saying that having the appropriate equipment and skills is essential for flying.
Other external constraints should also be considered before taking flight. One of the first ones is to consider the weather. You'll need to study meteorology and aerology to be able to assess the current conditions.
We've seen previously that wind is not a necessary element for flying, as long as there are thermals. Similarly, a blue sky is not a must for flying, although it's often more enjoyable. Under a cloudy sky, there will be fewer rising thermals, so paragliding flights will be shorter and/or lower. The main meteorological limitations occur when there is too much wind.
This creates risks both during takeoff and during the flight, where one can lose control of speed and direction. Rain, of course, is another significant constraint, as a soaked paraglider is not easily maneuverable. Likewise, a thunderstorm, which often combines wind and rain, is not conducive to paragliding. Especially since cumulonimbus clouds have the capacity to generate strong, and at times, unstable updrafts.
In order to monitor various information before the flight, beacons provide measurements of these data at paragliding sites.
The most ideal periods for paragliding flights are between March and October, but it is also possible to have fantastic flights outside of these periods. Flight conditions are not restricted by the seasons.
In addition to meteorology, another constraint encountered in flight is that of obstacles and of other aircraft.
It's important to be vigilant regarding the terrain, as well as obstacles such as power lines, for instance. Moreover, paragliding spots are typically popular, and encounters with other users during flights are common. Therefore, there are rules of priority in flight to avoid collisions. There are rules that establishes priorities based on the type of aircraft, others that set avoidance rules, and so on. Some rules apply during crossings at similar altitudes, while others are relevant during ascents or during landing, for example.
The presence of obstacles and other aircraft, as well as the terrain itself, also have an impact on the winds and can create flight turbulence by diverting air currents.